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Lubricant Choices in Closed-Die Forging

Closed die forging includes a controlled plastic deformation process of alloys and heated metals to achieve the desired shape. Without an appropriate forging die lubricant, effective and economical closed die forging is unattainable.

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Factors Affecting Closed Die Forging Quality

Factors that Ensure Optimal Life of a Forging Die

The life of a closed die forging is affected by many factors. The most common of which is the proper method of application of die lubricant at appropriate intervals. Likewise, the forging result may also be affected by the reduction of friction during the forging process. Friction can sufficiently be reduced by using suitable die lubricants and polished dies.

Moreso, proper heat treatment, while the forging process is ongoing, is mandatory. The use of protective anti-scale coating will help reduce scaling on critical surface areas of the material. Lastly, using a correct die material and design can make a difference. 

Types of Forging Die Lubricants

There are numerous types of closed die forging lubricants. Manufacturers often used water with soluble oils, graphite, sawdust, or common salt. The use of these types of lubricants offers several benefits to produce quality forging materials. It is economical, eco-friendly, non-polluting, easy to use, and improve the forging die life and productivity. 

Aside from using water and other mixes, closed die forging manufacturers also use oil without graphite, special oil with graphite, or furnace oil. These types require no purchase hassles, they are the least expensive, and they can improve your material’s die life.

Selection of the Right Type

Choosing the right type of closed die forging lubricant will depend on numerous parameters such as complexity of the forging, size, methods of dispensing the oil, pollution control, cost reduction, and depth of die cavity. 

The selection of the best type will require rigid guidelines and several field trials. Hence, the correct procedure of dispensing the lubricant and appropriate type of oil plays a decisive factor in achieving your desired metal shape. 

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Quality Closed Die Forging at Ferralloy

At Ferralloy Inc., we provide furnace components, extrusions, fabrications, fasteners, forgings, and the like with only the best quality. Contact us today!

The Basic Types of Metal Castings Used

Machined castings of metals involve an intricate process wherein molten metal is poured into a mold that has a hollow cavity of the preferred geometrical shape. After such a process, it is processed to form a solidified component. 

The word “casting” is likewise used to define or refer the part made by the machine casting process, which dates back more than 5,000 years ago. When it comes to history, this process is performed to make significant and complex metal components that would have been difficult when using the traditional manufacturing method. 

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Metal Casting Categories You Need to Know

Permanent Mold Casting

Permanent mold machined castings are subdivided into 3 groups depending on its pattern material. These 3 groups are die casting, low vacuum/pressure, and gravity casting. This casting is sometimes called non-expendable mold casting. 

It uses stable and long-lasting molds that are recycled after each production use. Despite using repeatable parts because of the recycled shapes, permanent mold casting can still produce simple and unique castings that, according to its preferential use. 

Expendable Mold Casting

Since there is a non-expendable mold casting, there should also be an expendable mold casting. The latter can be divided into 2 subcategories – permanent pattern and expendable pattern. Expendable models consist of investment castings and lost foam, while stable patterns consist of ceramic mold, shell mold, plaster molding, and sand casting.

These machined castings are used as a provisional non-reusable mold to create the final cast since the frame will need to be penetrated to get the casting out. These molds are often composed of materials such as sand, plaster, shell, or ceramic. 

Generally, these types are bonded using binders known as a bonding agent to enhance the materials’ properties. Likewise, expendable mold casting uses multifaceted and intricate geometries to produce the finished product.

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Where to Get the Best Machined Castings?

In every metal casting production, there should always be factors to consider. Such factors that need to be considered before deciding on the appropriate metal casting are the materials used, required tolerance, required quantity, and shapes or sizes of the metal component. To know more about these factors, contact Ferralloy, Inc. today!

Precision of the Lost Wax Casting Process

A casting investment is often resorted to because it can produce metal components with near-net shape, thin walls, precise shape into external or internal features, exceptional surface finish, and can produce fine details.

This normally results in highly satisfactory customer cost savings in machining, labor, and materials. One of the processes often used to get an accurate casting is the lost wax casting. Read on to know more.

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How Precise is the Lost Wax Casting Investment Process?

What is the Lost Wax Process?

In lost wax casting investment, a specific and general wax pattern of the preferred finished part is produced and mounted onto a wax tree. This first process involves the use of the metal delivery system. The wax tree is interchangeably plunged into a ceramic substance and topped with a stucco material. After this, it is left to dry out, and the process is repeated until a thick shell is achieved.

Once the shell is achieved, it is then melted out, creating a cavity in the form of the preferred pattern. The molten metal is then poured in such an area until it is filled. After the molten metal solidifies, the thick shell is fragmented, and the gating material is detached. The remaining parts are the finished product.

What are the Characteristics of the Lost Wax Process?

The distinctive characteristics of the lost wax casting investment are accurate tolerances and low roughness values. Moreover, considerable autonomy exists in both material choice and product design.

Accurate castings are usually applied in areas where high-quality metal components are demanded. For example, finished products brought by the lost wax process are often used in areas with substantial temperature differences and hostile or aggressive environments. Additionally, because of high and specific demands, unique and rare alloys are commonly used for these castings.

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Specializing in Lost Wax Casting Investment

To get the most out of your purchase or investment, you must use the services of companies that specialize in the lost wax process. On the other hand, you can simply seek companies that will do the job of looking for specialized companies that produce high-quality and high precision metal finishes. At Ferralloy Inc., we guarantee that only the best products are provided and offered for you to choose from. Contact us today!

Comparing Die Casting and Investment Casting Methods

Die casting, and investment casting are 2 of the foremost important types of casting. Die casting is a method wherein molten metal is created and formed into a mold cavity by way of enforcing high pressure. On the other side, investment casting is a process that involves the injection of wax into the aluminum cavity. Both die casting and investment castings have different advantages and disadvantages. Read on to know more.

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How Does Die Casting Differ from Investment Casting?

Die Casting

As stated earlier, die casting differ from investment castings in such a way that the former involves a metal casting procedure. It is categorized by the use of a mold cavity to apply high pressure to the molten metal. These molds are then machined, designed, and created from higher strength alloys. Additionally, the majority of die castings are iron-free.

Among the notable advantages that clients opt to choose to die castings over investment castings are the following: it has an exceptional economic effect, high productivity, and creates good product quality.

Investment Castings

Investment castings involve an exact and strict casting process through the use of the lost-wax process to create components in the metal cast alloys. This process is known to be very accurate, creating components with accurate dimensions and smooth surface finishes. With this process, the machining and finishing processes are reduced. Thus, it will be more cost-effective without even compromising the quality. The only downside when choosing investment casting is that it is more expensive than sand casting.

Other Differences

Casting predominantly includes special casting and sand casting. Investment casting is included under special casting while die casting is considered pressure casting, which is another major type with the same level as investment castings. As for the cost, die casting costs are higher than investment casting since the former involves post-processing operations and high-processing costs. However, when large production is needed, die casting is recommended because investment casting is a manual process that requires more time and cost.

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Where to Get Die Casting or Investment Castings?

If you’re planning to get components or materials that underwent die casting or investment casting process, contact Ferralloy today for more inquiries!

The Basics of the Machined Casting Process

Whatever business you may be in, efficiency is always a good thing. It doesn’t matter if your industry is service or manufacturing-oriented. Countless process efficiency always provides a wide array of benefits above “business as usual.” Hence, it is always imperative to determine the ways on how to efficiently better the ways of production. Check out the process of making machined castings:

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The Machined Casting Process

The Basics

To attain various specific metal components, there are certain developments that the metal undertakes. For products like a machined investment casting component, it is required to undergo a procedure after the part is cast known as machining. Aside from knowing what machining is, there are numerous diverse tools and processes within machining that are precise to the component and its purpose. Depending on what the machined investment casting components will ultimately be used for, the type of machining it undergoes could vary. 

Pay Attention to Part Details

To cast better aluminum, use fillets in place of sharp corners. Disparity shrinkage at the sharp corners will lead to persistent shrinkage porosity, which may develop during the machining process. Gussets and ribs must be used in place of immense sections. A regular blending of light into substantial sections is suggested. 

Understanding the Lifespan

If you think that aluminum die casting is the perfect option for your production requirements, you should know by now the maintenance and lifespan than aluminum die casting require. Since the life of the die is difficult to determine since it is heavily dependent on several factors, you’ll need to keep a selection of aspects in mind, which includes the desired part quality, aluminum alloy utilized, heat treatment, mold configuration, and tool steel used. 

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Know More about Machined Castings

Ferralloy, Inc. is an international company serving the global marketplace, offering competitively priced, engineered products produced in North America and Asia. Schedule an appointment today!

What Materials are Used to Make Closed Die Forgings?

Although closed die forging is enforced for almost all the metal materials, especially in physical production, only a portion of the materials is used for several characteristics. The prevailing materials used are one of the main factors that affect the cost of the forgings. Check out the prevailing materials used in closed die forgings to determine which best suits your goal.

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Different Closed Die Forging Materials Used

Brass or Copper

Brass or copper is also popularly used in closed die forging, which is the most expensive of the common materials that will be discussed. Brass or copper forging is more often than not the most frequently used material for pump and valve fittings.


This type of material is commonly used by forgers because of its easy machining, high strength, and low density. It is extensively used in the closed die forging process, particularly for the aerospace and automotive industries. While it is commonly used in the automotive and aerospace industries, it is a daring process for domestic forging due to the fact that it is straightforwardly deformed after forging. However, the typical heat treatment can assist in the hardness improvement of other properties.


Among the prevailing materials used in closed die forging, steel is by far the frequently used material due to its quality and durability. Stainless steel, carbon steel, and alloy steel are all used subject to what the forging will be used for. Carbon steel and alloy steel are the most extensively used in forging because of its easy deformation capability and competitive price.

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Do you Need More Information About Closed Die Forging?

One of the best things about forging is its versatility and adaptability with its components because the manufacturer can use any form of raw metal or even alloys using this method. It doesn’t matter if the user needs small or medium-sized metal parts – closed die forging can easily produce them. If you need more information about open and closed die forgings, Ferralloy, Inc. is the leading global supplier of engineered products and services to a diverse metalworking customer base. Schedule an appointment with us now to know more!

Castings Investment | The Value of Castings Investment

Is your current metalworking process hampered by component variance and additional cost? Perhaps you should consider switching to castings investment so that you can add more value to your project. Its manufacturing process is nothing short of versatile because it allows you to create a wide range of metal parts with various applications in many industries.

What are the Disadvantages of Secondary Operations?

Technically functioning parts can be produced by casting pieces and machining from solid. However, such secondary operations can be very inefficient when they’re being compared to investment casting. Factors such as production timeline, cost, and the required performance of the specific component need to be considered. For this reason, most manufacturers choose to steer clear of secondary operations that can negatively affect the speed-to-market, as well as part performance.

What are the Advantages of Investment Casting?

On the other hand, the investment casting process can offer near-net-shape or net-shape components without taking a lot of time. With the help of the latest software technology, manufacturers can make sure that the intricately detailed parts will come out mechanically sound even before the molten metal is poured into the mold. Furthermore, this metalworking method gives engineers and designers free rein while eliminating material waste that usually results from secondary machining.

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A Closer Look at the Value of Castings Investment 

The process involved in creating castings investment allows manufacturers to achieve repeatability and reduction or elimination of various downstream operations. Furthermore, this will further reduce loops for reworking the parts and streamlines the process of delivery from the manufacturers to the various industries they serve. While you satisfy your customers’ requirements, you’ll also get to experience the benefits of one of the most optimized and repeatable precision metal processes in all of history. If you want to know more about castings investment, call Ferralloy, Inc. today. We’re the leading global supplier of engineered products and services and we offer total supply chain management to a diverse metalworking customer base.

Seamless Rolled Ring Forging | Different Types of Forging Processes

Manufacturers use different types of forging processes in order to create the metal products their clients require. The forging process has four main types including impression die forging, cold forging, open die forging, and seamless rolled ring forging. Take a closer look at each one of them here:

What is seamless rolled ring forging?

The Main Types of Forging Processes

Impression Die Forging

This method involves placing a precut profile of the required component between two dies called tooling. The dies press the metal parts that can range from a few ounces to about 60,000 pounds. Furthermore, the process can work well with various kinds of materials such as titanium, aluminum, steel, and other alloys. It’s able to create 3D shapes that are as heavy as 25 tons or even more.

Cold Forging

Although most forging methods are performed with the application of heat that reaches temperatures of up to 2300˚F, this variation of forging uses temperatures that can reach several hundred degrees. Furthermore, cold forging covers a variety of processes such as cold drawing, bending, cold heading, extrusions, and coining in order to produce a diverse array of metal shapes.

Open Die Forging

The key to this method is not to confine the metal preform between flat dies during the forging process. The desired shape is achieved by progressively working the starting stock. In terms of size limitations, the produced parts are only limited to the starting stock’s size. Any forgeable ferrous, as well as a non-ferrous alloy, can be forged through this process. Lastly, the process can produce round, rectangular, square, hexagonal bars, hollow cylinders, ring-shaped parts, and more.

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Seamless Rolled Ring Forging

This process is performed by piercing a hole at the center of a round pre-form metal to create a donut shape before it is rolled, squeezed or pounded into a ring. It’s possible to produce rings with diameters that can range from a few inches up to about 30 feet. If you want to know more about seamless rolled rolling and the other types of forging processes, contact Ferralloy, Inc. today.

Investment Casting | Common Casting Surface Treatment Methods

Investment casting refers to the metalworking manufacturing process that’s widely used in various types of industries. Sometimes called lost-wax casting or precision casting, it involves the use of a wax pattern in shaping a ceramic mold before molten metal gets poured into the ceramic shell to create the desired part. To improve the appearance and quality of an investment casting, manufacturers apply surface treatment methods.

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What are the Common Types of Surface Treatment Methods for Investment Castings?

Hot Dip Galvanizing

The application of this method requires the immersion of the carbon steel part in a plating bath of liquefied zinc at 510˚C in order to turn the iron-zinc alloy on the steel component’s surface into passivated zinc. This process is a lot similar to the hot-dip aluminizing method.

Auto-catalytic Plating

Commonly known as chemical plating, this popular surface treatment method is primarily known for being eco-friendly and easy to operate. Its end product is a workpiece that exhibits high resistance to corrosion, as well as good wear.

Vacuum Plating

This encompasses different types of vacuum evaporation, ion plating, and sputtering plating. These are all utilized to facilitate the deposition of various metal as well as non-metal films on the surface of the parts until it reaches the point where a thin coating is obtained. Compared to other surface treatment methods, vacuum plating offers extremely fast adhesion. For this reason, this method is typically used as an internal shield or a functional coating that’s ideal for products of higher-grade.

Paint Finishing

Did you know that various types of coating can be used to complete this surface treatment method? These types include electrophoretic coating, hand coating, and electrostatic coating. Primarily operated according to the manufacturer’s sample or even their color number, the paint finishing surface treatment method is commonly used for both iron and steel castings.

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Where to Find Top-Quality Investment Casting

If you’re looking to find top-quality investment casting, get in touch with the leading comprehensive engineered product resource – Ferralloy, Inc.

Investment Castings | What You May Not Know About Gravity Fed Castings

If you need unique parts for your next project, you may want to consider choosing investment castings. Due to the fact that it offers flexibility in terms of design, these components are widely used in various industries. Primarily created by utilizing a specific mold for the series of coating and hardening processes, investment castings feature remarkably unique surfaces that can be easily recreated. One of the methods used to create investment castings is through the gravity-fed process.

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A Closer Look at Gravity Fed Castings

What Exactly Are Gravity Fed Castings?

Gravity is a force that we’re familiar with. However, when it comes to metalworking, this natural force can be used to produce durable industrial parts. Also referred to as permanent mold castings, gravity-fed castings are created after the liquid metal is poured from a vertical position into a specific metallic tool. Aside from the fact that no additional force is applied during the entire process, gravity fed castings can also be produced using semi-permanent mold casting cores that are made of metal and sand.

How are Gravity Fed Castings Made?

It all starts with a mold that has already been preheated. Preheated molds make it a lot easier for the material to flow. It also protects the casting from being damaged before the mold is coated by metal workers or machines. The coating process keeps the material from sticking. Next, the material is poured or invested and hardened before it is removed. This entire process is done repeatedly until the target is fulfilled. As mentioned earlier, no extra force is applied except for gravity.

What are the Advantages of Using Gravity Fed Castings?

Gravity-fed castings are great for large production orders because it’s easy for manufacturers to redo the molding process for more castings. Furthermore, these castings offer more structural integrity than other alternatives because less gas gets trapped within the molds.

Learn More About Investment Castings!

If you’re curious to know more about investment castings, call Ferralloy, Inc. today. We’re the leading comprehensive engineered product resource.