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Technical Specifications: Closed Die Forging

Closed die forging uses a controlled procedure with a culmination of alloys and heated metals to create the desired shape. Without an appropriate forging die lubricant, effective and economical closed die forging is unattainable. To know more about the technical specifications of this type of forging, please read on.

Mechanical Characteristics of Closed Die Forging

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Alloys Used

Closed die forging is a type of forging that has exceptional mechanical characteristics – one of which is adaptability to the different kinds of an alloy such as copper, bronze, and aluminum. Aside from allows, it can also adapt or mold various kinds of steel like stainless steel, tool steel, and alloy steel.

Specifications

When using closed die forging, the tooling division must go through the center of the forging and should not run through the side. The reason for this is that the forging must be detachable from its divisions.

The different cross-sections must be equal to avoid extreme disparities in the flow of the metal. Additionally, a closed die forging uses low and wide rib features. To avoid quick tooling cracks or wear in forgings, manufacturers use large radii. Moreso, an ample and suitable draft angle should be provided wherein compliance of the 5° to 7° for steel and 3° for aluminum are mandatory.

Benefits and Finishing Options

Closed die forging is known for its economical procedure compared with welding assemblies. Other notable benefits include high production speed, use of highly homogeneous steel and alloys, and high rating when it comes to good repeatability. As for the finishing options, closed die forging allows blasting, vibra-polishing, hot-dip galvanizing, and electrolytic zinc plating.

Factors that Guarantee Only the Finest Forging Die

The finished product of a closed die forging is affected by several factors. The most common of which is the accurate process of application of die lubricant at proper intervals. Similarly, the forging result may also be affected by the decrease in friction during the forging procedure. Friction can satisfactorily be decreased by using appropriate polished dies and die lubricants.

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Lubricant Choices in Closed-Die Forging

Closed die forging includes a controlled plastic deformation process of alloys and heated metals to achieve the desired shape. Without an appropriate forging die lubricant, effective and economical closed die forging is unattainable.

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Factors Affecting Closed Die Forging Quality

Factors that Ensure Optimal Life of a Forging Die

The life of a closed die forging is affected by many factors. The most common of which is the proper method of application of die lubricant at appropriate intervals. Likewise, the forging result may also be affected by the reduction of friction during the forging process. Friction can sufficiently be reduced by using suitable die lubricants and polished dies.

Moreso, proper heat treatment, while the forging process is ongoing, is mandatory. The use of protective anti-scale coating will help reduce scaling on critical surface areas of the material. Lastly, using a correct die material and design can make a difference. 

Types of Forging Die Lubricants

There are numerous types of closed die forging lubricants. Manufacturers often used water with soluble oils, graphite, sawdust, or common salt. The use of these types of lubricants offers several benefits to produce quality forging materials. It is economical, eco-friendly, non-polluting, easy to use, and improve the forging die life and productivity. 

Aside from using water and other mixes, closed die forging manufacturers also use oil without graphite, special oil with graphite, or furnace oil. These types require no purchase hassles, they are the least expensive, and they can improve your material’s die life.

Selection of the Right Type

Choosing the right type of closed die forging lubricant will depend on numerous parameters such as complexity of the forging, size, methods of dispensing the oil, pollution control, cost reduction, and depth of die cavity. 

The selection of the best type will require rigid guidelines and several field trials. Hence, the correct procedure of dispensing the lubricant and appropriate type of oil plays a decisive factor in achieving your desired metal shape. 

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Facts You Need to Know About The Closed Die Forging Presses

Closed die forging is a forging process and sometimes known as impression die forging. This procedure involves two or more dies that comprise a precut profile of the desired component. The heated raw material is placed at the bottom of the die. The dies then move towards each other until the raw material is formed into its required shape and size. Read on to know more about this forging presses.

Advantages of Closed Die Forging Presses

Quality and Efficiency

For industries engaged in manufacturing tools and other parts, a die with a pre-formed impression is required. The company that offers this forging presses likewise offers metal components, tools, and other parts with only the best product quality and efficiency. To meet whatever standard your industry requires mechanical and hydraulic closed die forging presses are enough to surpass your expectations.

Require Less Maintenance

With hydraulic and mechanical forging presses, a metal, alloy, steel, or any type of substance use, different industries may be perfectly built for a specific company need. Additionally, it can even save you more time and money, and it requires less maintenance.

Strong and Durable

In terms of strength and durability, the finished products of the forging presses come first. Because of the advancement in internal structure, the continuity of the grain is maintained. If you’re interested in producing high-performance products that are both strong and durable, use this forging manufacturing technique.

Rejection Rate is Low

If the raw material is of good quality, this forging can create parts that have no internal defects and excellent mechanical properties. This translates into low rejection rates and more economic advantage.

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Process Capability of Closed Die Forging

Closed die forging usually is precision-machined to achieve net shape or near-net shape finished products. When you use forging, less post-forging operations are needed because near-net shape products are formed and created. Otherwise said, you’ll save a substantial amount of time and effort when you use this type of process.

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Closed Die Forging Process

Basics of Closed Die Forging

Also known as the impression-die forging of titanium, aluminum, steel, or other types of alloys, closed die forging can practically produce a wide array of 3D shapes that differ in weight from ounces to tons. This type of forging is primarily created on hammers, mechanical press, and hydraulic presses with powerful capacity that can reach up to 50,000 pounds.

What it Contains and Yields

As the name suggests, two or more closed dies comprising impressions of the shape are merged together as forging stock that endures plastic deformation. Since the die contours control the metal flow, closed die forging can produce closer tolerances and more difficult shapes as compared to open die forging processes.

Best Thing About Closed Die Forgings

One of the best things about forging is its adaptability and versatility with its components because the manufacturer can use any form of raw metal or even alloys using this method. It doesn’t matter if the user needs small or medium-sized metal parts – closed die forging can quickly produce them.

Forging Process

Closed die forging involves the most complex components with long and thin portions that integrate small webs and relatively high vertical projections like bosses and ribs. Likewise, it also includes simple elements to forge secure disc-like configurations, block-like shape solids, and spherical shape configurations. While most of these parts are commonly symmetrical, others integrate all kinds of design components such as pockets, cavities, holes, protrusion, flanges, and a whole lot more. These are used to produce a very non-symmetrical forging. Additionally, portions of the materials used can be easily curved and bent in one or more planes.

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Closed Die Forging vs Open Die Forging

Most manufacturers use the closed die forging technique when they need to forge metallic parts that are small or medium-sized. The fact that multiple elements and factors are being merged during the process of forging leaves us no reason to wonder why this technique is able to generate results that are geometrically accurate. However, before resulting in a closed die forging technique, it is essential to first determine the difference between open die or closed die forging.

Common Information to Know About Die Forging

What is it?

Free forging, commonly known as open die forging, is the method of deforming the metals between the several dies. It is called open die forging since the multiple dies do not entirely enclose the metal. These dies often hammer the metal through a chain of movements. It tends to alter the dimension of the metals until the dies reach the desired shape.

On the other hand, closed die forging is also called an impression forging. It takes advantage of a specific amount of pressure to force the metal piece into an encircled or bounded die. This process uses an induction heating furnace with medium frequency to heat the metal to reach the desired pattern.

Advantages and Disadvantages

In whatever you purchase or manufacture, one of the important factor to look into are the advantages or disadvantages of the product. Die forging is the perfect method to achieve maximum tolerance. When it comes to open die forging, it is cost-effective since it uses less material waste. Additionally, it offers reduced chances of voids in your final forging, can increase strength to achieve longer product life, improved microstructure, and has an excellent fatigue resistance.

In contrast, closed die forging offers excellent net shapes, tighter tolerances, and better surface finish. It is resorted to so there can be no material limitation and it will be economically beneficial when it comes to large runs.

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Seamless Rolled Ring Forging | The Basics About Manufacturing Forged Steel Rings

Are you working on a project that requires the use of seamless rolled ring forging? The process of creating a seamless rolled ring involves the creation of a circular piece of metal that’s pierced at the center. Through open die forging, the metal is formed into something that’s shaped like a doughnut before it’s heated between 400 and 700˚C. Next, it’s placed on a mandrel or idler roll that increases the steel ring’s diameters and reduces the thickness of its walls. As the idler or mandrel roll pushes the ring’s walls outward, a wide range of shapes and sizes can be formed.

What are the Properties of Rolled Ring Forging?

The process that involves heating the doughnut-shaped metal above recrystallization temperature significantly improves the metal’s grain pattern. This increases the strength and resistance of the seamless rolled ring forging. Furthermore, the durability of this product allows it to maintain its shape when it is exposed to extreme fluctuations of temperature. Lastly, seamless rolled rings are also known to be cost-effective because they require less labor, machining, and raw materials compared to other alternatives.

What are the Common Applications of Rolled Rings?

In case you’re wondering, these strong, durable, and cost-effective metal components are widely used in various industries such as aerospace engineering, mining, as well as power generation. They are also extremely useful in manufacturing custom pressure vessel components which include valves, couplings, bearings, and forged flanges.

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Closed Die Forging | Why Closed Die Forging is the Best Manufacturing Technique

Most manufacturers use the closed die forging technique when they need to forge metallic parts that are small or medium-sized. The fact that multiple elements and factors are being merged during the process of forging leaves us no reason to wonder why this technique is able to generate results that are geometrically accurate. Here are some of the reasons why forging is one of the most popular options in the metalworking industry:

Strength and Durability

In terms of strength and durability, the finished products of closed die forging come first. Thanks to the internal structure, the continuity of the grain is maintained. If you’re interested in producing high-performance products that are both strong and durable, use the close die forging manufacturing technique.

Production of Net Shapes or Near Net Shapes

Forging dies are typically precision-machined that’s why their finished products are the net shape or near-net shape. When you use forging, less post-forging operations are required because near-net shape products are produced. In other words, you’ll save a significant amount of time and effort.

Cost-Effectiveness

Since forging creates products that feature close tolerance with optimum surface finish, the need for post-machining operations and finishing is greatly reduced. This implies that you’ll get to spend less money for mass volume production.

Versatility with Components

One of the best things about forging is its versatility and adaptability with its components because the manufacturer can use any form of raw metal or even alloys using this method. It doesn’t matter if the user needs small or medium-sized metal parts – closed die forging can easily produce them.

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Closed Die Forging | Applications for Open and Closed Die Forging

Over the years, the forging industry has tremendously evolved. The use of various techniques and processes gave rise to applications in industries such as construction, agricultural, automotive, machinery, and so much more. Furthermore, the two most popular forms of forging are open die forging and closed die forging. Although both are rooted in the fundamental forging process that involves beating a piece of metal until the desired shape, strength, and granular level are achieved, these two processes have branches in different directions.

What is Open Die Forging?

Sometimes called free forging, the open die forging process involves the placement of a piece of metal between multiple dies that don’t entirely close the metal. Through a series of movements, the dies hammer and stamp the material to change its dimensions until the required shape is attained.

What is Closed Die Forging?

Closed die forging is also called impression forging. It uses pressure to compress a piece of metal so that it will fill an enclosed die impression. It also involves the use of a medium frequency induction heating furnace for applying heat to the metal until the desired shape is achieved.

What are the Applications of Both Open and Closed Die Forging?

The end products of both processes look different from each other in terms of size. The forging process alters the metal at a granular level as continuous force is being applied via the beating process. Since open die forging doesn’t involve a fixed die size, this method works best for creating larger and heavier metal components that don’t require much machining to produce ultra-finished products. Among these large components are rollers and shafts that are used in railways. On the other hand, closed die forging is ideal for applications that require a high degree of precision such as forged fittings or automotive parts.

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Rolled Ring Forgings | The Fundamentals of Seamless Rolled Ring Forging

Do you need parts for your flanges? Are you trying to work on a pressure vessel connections forging projects? If your answer is yes to these questions, you’ll need to know more about seamless rolled ring forgings that are made of steel because they’re perfect for both situations.

How Forged Steel Rings are Made

The process of manufacturing seamless rolled ring forgings starts with a circular piece of metal that’s been cut to the required weight before being rounded out. Through the open die forging process, the circular metal is then pierced at the center to produce a hollow shape of a doughnut. Before it is placed on the mandrel or the idler roll, it needs to be heated above recrystallization temperature which is usually between 400 and 700˚C.

The Next Steps

Once the heated metal is on the roll, the walls of the doughnut are pushed outward in order to reduce the thickness of its walls and increase the steel ring’s diameters. In case you’re wondering, the roll has the capacity to produce a wide array of shapes as well as proportions. In most cases, seamless rolled ring forgings that are made of steel have a thickness-to-height ratio between 1:16 and 16:1.

What are the Properties of Seamless Rolled Ring Forgings?

Seamless rolled ring forgings are known for their higher strength and resistance because the steel’s grain pattern is significantly improved by the recrystallization process. Furthermore, these forged steel rings are also durable because their ability to resist deforming from heat allows them to maintain their shape even when they’re subjected to drastic temperature fluctuations. Also, seamless rolled ring forgings are cost-effective because they require less machining, raw materials, and labor compared to similar components because the steel ring’s shape doesn’t change much during the entire duration of the manufacturing process.

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Rolled Ring Forgings | What to Consider for Forging Design

When you want to produce metal shapes using localized compressive forces, forging is your technique of choice. The popular use of forged metal products in various industries is highly attributed to the engineering perfection and technical capability of the forging industry. Moreover, different types of machine forging processes produce cold forgings, impression die forgings, open die forgings, and seamless rolled ring forgings that apply in the manufacturing industry. However, to achieve successful and effective forging operations, proper forging design must be ensured. Here are the factors you need to consider for forging design:

Shape of the Forged Part

Although it’s possible for the forged components to be manufactured in any shape, the final cost of the tooling is dependent upon the shape of the forged part. Furthermore, with simple forging shapes, the flow of the material being used will be smoother.

Estimation of Total Energy Required and Forging Load

It’s important to consider the details and dimensions of the machining operations, machining locations, and the functions of the forged part when a forging design is being developed. During the designing process, you’ll also need to think about the number of your required materials and the energy that’s required for the machine forging operation. You can have a good idea about the design’s cost-effectiveness when you analyze the forging load and the energy requirement.

Materials Used for Manufacturing the Component

Forging designers choose raw materials can pick raw materials from a wide array of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys such as stainless steel, aluminum, copper alloys, and carbon, micro-alloy, and alloy steel.

The Bottom Line

In a nutshell, you can ensure the precision of your forging design if you consider the surface finish, overall geometry dimensional tolerance, and the compliance with the requirement.

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