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The History of Forging

Ever wondered how open die and closed die forging began? The art of forging emerged around 4,000 B.C. – some even say that it began way before this time. Metals like iron and bronze were forged to produce hand tools and other weapons for defense. However, the earliest recorded metal forged by early generations was made out of gold. If you want to know more about the history of forging, please read on.

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Centuries of Forging Developments

Before the 19th Century

Limited amounts of natural gold were found in Spanish caves and were said to be used as tools and weapons in the late Paleolithic period. The forging of steel and iron continued in the 19th century and its improvements became the pillars of what has become of today’s forging processes.

19th Century

Forgers and other experts on the forging process were specifically skilled at hand, especially when it comes to open die and closed die forgings. Since bent and twisted iron can only be produced in high heat, the forgers became dexterous in hammer welding and several large shaft forgings.

In 1856, the emergence of the Bessemer steel-making process became a breakthrough in the history of the forging process. People now have an abundant supply of low-cost steel for creating and designing large quantities of forgings.

Historians say that the first cavity steel forging began with the help of the closed die process. It commenced in the United Stated in 1862.

20th Century

The Industrial Revolution and World War II both lead to the development of better forging equipment and processes. Eventually, electrical motors and induction heaters enabled forged rolled rings to be produced quicker, easier, and more effectively than ever before.

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Forgeability of a Metal

The ability of a metal to undergo deformation without cracking by means of forging is what experts call the forgeability of a metal. With this characteristic, metals can easily be formed with low force and resistance. For instance, closed die forging involves a process wherein the dies move toward each other by covering the metal. The heated raw material is placed at the bottom die to produce a design or shape according to specifications. To know more about the forgeability of the metal, please continue reading.

 

What is Closed Die Forging?

All about Forgeability

Tests to Determine Forgeability

According to experts, there are two primary tests to determine forgeability of a metal – Upsetting test and Hot-twist test. Upsetting test involves cracking while upsetting a cylindrical specimen.  Although this test only provides basic guidelines, it uses different strain and temperature rates to ensure that forgeability can be determined.

On the other hand, the hot-twist test requires the twisting of a metal rod at different temperature rates. Using this method, forgeability can be determined for various materials, including steel.

Extrusion Process

Extrusion is conducted by deforming metal and transporting it into a chamber before the compression process starts. In standard extrusion procedures, a round billet is placed in a chamber and forced through a die opening by a ram. Additionally, this process requires extreme temperature for the material to be completely formed.

The methods of extrusion involved in forgeability of a metal are direct extrusion, indirect extrusion, hydrostatic extrusion, and impact extrusion.

Metal Flow

Metal flow is an important factor to consider when deforming a metal. It must have a substantial reduction in the cross-sectional part of the process to make sure that the flow is undisturbed. Also, extrusion defects may occur if there are impurities and oxides caused due to the inhomogeneous flow of metal. When this happens, surface defects will thrust or be expelled into the center of the extruded parts.

 

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Closed Die Forging

Otherwise known as impression-die forging, closed die forging relates to a process in which a metal is placed between shapes that are customized to fit the metal. Such metal is then pressed and hammered, causing it to fill and flow in the cavities of the custom-shaped dies. This forging classification is one of the most frequently used processes for forging steel components.

Closed die forging can produce longer-lasting and stronger products because it works well with the steel’s internal grain structure.

Why is Closed Die Forging Frequently Used?

Pros

The noteworthy advantage offered by closed die forging is that it needs little-to-no machining at all. It simply makes use of the force produced from all the pressing and hammering during the closed die forging process. Likewise, it uses the right amount of heat to deform the steel so it can accurately fill the die mold or impression.

Closed die forging can be used to create parts made out of almost all metal materials, including steel, aluminum, and countless other metal alloys. Thanks to no material limitations, parts can be made to fit your exact needs. Other advantages of closed die forging are:

  • Capacity to create near net shape and sizes
  • More accurate and steady impressions
  • Can achieve several shapes and dimensions have tight tolerances
  • Superior mechanical properties and better surface finish

Cons

Just like everything in life, there are some disadvantages to products – that includes closed die forgings. Some of the common disadvantages include:

  • Size limitation
  • It is not cost-effective for short production runs for the high tooling cost
  • Shape limitation – For these components with an irregular shape, it is also not available
  • Such complex products can only be made by casting

What is Closed Die Forging?

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At Ferralloy, our team will closely work with you to determine if closed die forgings are the best options for your company. We will provide you with every detail you need so you can make a better choice. If you’re interested, contact us today!

Technical Specifications: Closed Die Forging

Closed die forging uses a controlled procedure with a culmination of alloys and heated metals to create the desired shape. Without an appropriate forging die lubricant, effective and economical closed die forging is unattainable. To know more about the technical specifications of this type of forging, please read on.

Mechanical Characteristics of Closed Die Forging

benefits-of-closed-die-forging

 

Alloys Used

Closed die forging is a type of forging that has exceptional mechanical characteristics – one of which is adaptability to the different kinds of an alloy such as copper, bronze, and aluminum. Aside from allows, it can also adapt or mold various kinds of steel like stainless steel, tool steel, and alloy steel.

Specifications

When using closed die forging, the tooling division must go through the center of the forging and should not run through the side. The reason for this is that the forging must be detachable from its divisions.

The different cross-sections must be equal to avoid extreme disparities in the flow of the metal. Additionally, a closed die forging uses low and wide rib features. To avoid quick tooling cracks or wear in forgings, manufacturers use large radii. Moreso, an ample and suitable draft angle should be provided wherein compliance of the 5° to 7° for steel and 3° for aluminum are mandatory.

Benefits and Finishing Options

Closed die forging is known for its economical procedure compared with welding assemblies. Other notable benefits include high production speed, use of highly homogeneous steel and alloys, and high rating when it comes to good repeatability. As for the finishing options, closed die forging allows blasting, vibra-polishing, hot-dip galvanizing, and electrolytic zinc plating.

Factors that Guarantee Only the Finest Forging Die

The finished product of a closed die forging is affected by several factors. The most common of which is the accurate process of application of die lubricant at proper intervals. Similarly, the forging result may also be affected by the decrease in friction during the forging procedure. Friction can satisfactorily be decreased by using appropriate polished dies and die lubricants.

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Lubricant Choices in Closed-Die Forging

Closed die forging includes a controlled plastic deformation process of alloys and heated metals to achieve the desired shape. Without an appropriate forging die lubricant, effective and economical closed die forging is unattainable.

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Factors Affecting Closed Die Forging Quality

Factors that Ensure Optimal Life of a Forging Die

The life of a closed die forging is affected by many factors. The most common of which is the proper method of application of die lubricant at appropriate intervals. Likewise, the forging result may also be affected by the reduction of friction during the forging process. Friction can sufficiently be reduced by using suitable die lubricants and polished dies.

Moreso, proper heat treatment, while the forging process is ongoing, is mandatory. The use of protective anti-scale coating will help reduce scaling on critical surface areas of the material. Lastly, using a correct die material and design can make a difference. 

Types of Forging Die Lubricants

There are numerous types of closed die forging lubricants. Manufacturers often used water with soluble oils, graphite, sawdust, or common salt. The use of these types of lubricants offers several benefits to produce quality forging materials. It is economical, eco-friendly, non-polluting, easy to use, and improve the forging die life and productivity. 

Aside from using water and other mixes, closed die forging manufacturers also use oil without graphite, special oil with graphite, or furnace oil. These types require no purchase hassles, they are the least expensive, and they can improve your material’s die life.

Selection of the Right Type

Choosing the right type of closed die forging lubricant will depend on numerous parameters such as complexity of the forging, size, methods of dispensing the oil, pollution control, cost reduction, and depth of die cavity. 

The selection of the best type will require rigid guidelines and several field trials. Hence, the correct procedure of dispensing the lubricant and appropriate type of oil plays a decisive factor in achieving your desired metal shape. 

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Facts You Need to Know About The Closed Die Forging Presses

Closed die forging is a forging process and sometimes known as impression die forging. This procedure involves two or more dies that comprise a precut profile of the desired component. The heated raw material is placed at the bottom of the die. The dies then move towards each other until the raw material is formed into its required shape and size. Read on to know more about this forging presses.

Advantages of Closed Die Forging Presses

Quality and Efficiency

For industries engaged in manufacturing tools and other parts, a die with a pre-formed impression is required. The company that offers this forging presses likewise offers metal components, tools, and other parts with only the best product quality and efficiency. To meet whatever standard your industry requires mechanical and hydraulic closed die forging presses are enough to surpass your expectations.

Require Less Maintenance

With hydraulic and mechanical forging presses, a metal, alloy, steel, or any type of substance use, different industries may be perfectly built for a specific company need. Additionally, it can even save you more time and money, and it requires less maintenance.

Strong and Durable

In terms of strength and durability, the finished products of the forging presses come first. Because of the advancement in internal structure, the continuity of the grain is maintained. If you’re interested in producing high-performance products that are both strong and durable, use this forging manufacturing technique.

Rejection Rate is Low

If the raw material is of good quality, this forging can create parts that have no internal defects and excellent mechanical properties. This translates into low rejection rates and more economic advantage.

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Process Capability of Closed Die Forging

Closed die forging usually is precision-machined to achieve net shape or near-net shape finished products. When you use forging, less post-forging operations are needed because near-net shape products are formed and created. Otherwise said, you’ll save a substantial amount of time and effort when you use this type of process.

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Closed Die Forging Process

Basics of Closed Die Forging

Also known as the impression-die forging of titanium, aluminum, steel, or other types of alloys, closed die forging can practically produce a wide array of 3D shapes that differ in weight from ounces to tons. This type of forging is primarily created on hammers, mechanical press, and hydraulic presses with powerful capacity that can reach up to 50,000 pounds.

What it Contains and Yields

As the name suggests, two or more closed dies comprising impressions of the shape are merged together as forging stock that endures plastic deformation. Since the die contours control the metal flow, closed die forging can produce closer tolerances and more difficult shapes as compared to open die forging processes.

Best Thing About Closed Die Forgings

One of the best things about forging is its adaptability and versatility with its components because the manufacturer can use any form of raw metal or even alloys using this method. It doesn’t matter if the user needs small or medium-sized metal parts – closed die forging can quickly produce them.

Forging Process

Closed die forging involves the most complex components with long and thin portions that integrate small webs and relatively high vertical projections like bosses and ribs. Likewise, it also includes simple elements to forge secure disc-like configurations, block-like shape solids, and spherical shape configurations. While most of these parts are commonly symmetrical, others integrate all kinds of design components such as pockets, cavities, holes, protrusion, flanges, and a whole lot more. These are used to produce a very non-symmetrical forging. Additionally, portions of the materials used can be easily curved and bent in one or more planes.

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Closed Die Forging vs Open Die Forging

Most manufacturers use the closed die forging technique when they need to forge metallic parts that are small or medium-sized. The fact that multiple elements and factors are being merged during the process of forging leaves us no reason to wonder why this technique is able to generate results that are geometrically accurate. However, before resulting in a closed die forging technique, it is essential to first determine the difference between open die or closed die forging.

Common Information to Know About Die Forging

What is it?

Free forging, commonly known as open die forging, is the method of deforming the metals between the several dies. It is called open die forging since the multiple dies do not entirely enclose the metal. These dies often hammer the metal through a chain of movements. It tends to alter the dimension of the metals until the dies reach the desired shape.

On the other hand, closed die forging is also called an impression forging. It takes advantage of a specific amount of pressure to force the metal piece into an encircled or bounded die. This process uses an induction heating furnace with medium frequency to heat the metal to reach the desired pattern.

Advantages and Disadvantages

In whatever you purchase or manufacture, one of the important factor to look into are the advantages or disadvantages of the product. Die forging is the perfect method to achieve maximum tolerance. When it comes to open die forging, it is cost-effective since it uses less material waste. Additionally, it offers reduced chances of voids in your final forging, can increase strength to achieve longer product life, improved microstructure, and has an excellent fatigue resistance.

In contrast, closed die forging offers excellent net shapes, tighter tolerances, and better surface finish. It is resorted to so there can be no material limitation and it will be economically beneficial when it comes to large runs.

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Seamless Rolled Ring Forging | The Basics About Manufacturing Forged Steel Rings

Are you working on a project that requires the use of seamless rolled ring forging? The process of creating a seamless rolled ring involves the creation of a circular piece of metal that’s pierced at the center. Through open die forging, the metal is formed into something that’s shaped like a doughnut before it’s heated between 400 and 700˚C. Next, it’s placed on a mandrel or idler roll that increases the steel ring’s diameters and reduces the thickness of its walls. As the idler or mandrel roll pushes the ring’s walls outward, a wide range of shapes and sizes can be formed.

What are the Properties of Rolled Ring Forging?

The process that involves heating the doughnut-shaped metal above recrystallization temperature significantly improves the metal’s grain pattern. This increases the strength and resistance of the seamless rolled ring forging. Furthermore, the durability of this product allows it to maintain its shape when it is exposed to extreme fluctuations of temperature. Lastly, seamless rolled rings are also known to be cost-effective because they require less labor, machining, and raw materials compared to other alternatives.

What are the Common Applications of Rolled Rings?

In case you’re wondering, these strong, durable, and cost-effective metal components are widely used in various industries such as aerospace engineering, mining, as well as power generation. They are also extremely useful in manufacturing custom pressure vessel components which include valves, couplings, bearings, and forged flanges.

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Closed Die Forging | Why Closed Die Forging is the Best Manufacturing Technique

Most manufacturers use the closed die forging technique when they need to forge metallic parts that are small or medium-sized. The fact that multiple elements and factors are being merged during the process of forging leaves us no reason to wonder why this technique is able to generate results that are geometrically accurate. Here are some of the reasons why forging is one of the most popular options in the metalworking industry:

Strength and Durability

In terms of strength and durability, the finished products of closed die forging come first. Thanks to the internal structure, the continuity of the grain is maintained. If you’re interested in producing high-performance products that are both strong and durable, use the close die forging manufacturing technique.

Production of Net Shapes or Near Net Shapes

Forging dies are typically precision-machined that’s why their finished products are the net shape or near-net shape. When you use forging, less post-forging operations are required because near-net shape products are produced. In other words, you’ll save a significant amount of time and effort.

Cost-Effectiveness

Since forging creates products that feature close tolerance with optimum surface finish, the need for post-machining operations and finishing is greatly reduced. This implies that you’ll get to spend less money for mass volume production.

Versatility with Components

One of the best things about forging is its versatility and adaptability with its components because the manufacturer can use any form of raw metal or even alloys using this method. It doesn’t matter if the user needs small or medium-sized metal parts – closed die forging can easily produce them.

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